Check out our sponsors

The Real Story Behind The Exorcist Movie: The Exorcism of Roland Doe

One of the greatest horror movies of all time is based on true events. That thought should give everyone a moment's pause.

The Exorcist, both William Peter Blatty's 1971 novel and William Friedkin's 1973 movie, came a time in our history when people had stopped believing in the existence of the devil. A great time for the devil, a scary time for us.     

Have you ever wondered how much is Hollywood and how much is real?  

Spoiler ... It's a lot more reality than Hollywood.  

What is the true story, true events behind the Exorcist movie?
Here's the true story behind The Exorcist, taken from the notes of the exorcists priests, the eyewitnesses, the neighbors, friends, classmates, and the newspapers. 

You will find that truth is much stranger than fiction ...

This is a chapter in a larger book I wrote on the subject: True Catholic Exorcisms. Now, also an audiobook, narrated by BBC-veteran Alan Turton. 

First off, it wasn't a little girl -- no Linda Blair. It was a little boy that was possessed. 

Also, before diving into this, it's a good idea to pray the St. Michael prayer for protection:

Not Regan ... 

Meet Ronald. Ronald Edwin Hunkeler was given the pseudonym, Roland Doe, by the original Washington, DC newspaper accounts of the possession in 1949. His real name wouldn't be revealed until his recent death in 2020, may he rest in peace. 

Stay tuned until the end of the article for a yearbook picture of Roland. 

Roland Doe,[1] 1949

The exorcism which re-captured the nation’s imagination – this is the exorcism which inspired William Peter Blatty’s 1971 horror novel turned movie, The Exorcist. Blatty, himself, heard rumors of the exorcism from the Jesuits priests of Georgetown University, while a student there as a member of the class of 1950.

Between 1950 and 1971, many priests had begun dismissing the reality of the demonic, including many Jesuits. Merely metaphorical or social evil was preached from the pulpit. The Devil was just a personification of the evil within us. Demons did not exist. Psychologists and academics, even to this day, dismissed all supernatural phenomena as superstitious nonsense.

This is why The Exorcist re-captured the nation’s imagination. The Devil had succeeded, for a time, in convincing the world he did not exist. 

Michael Cuneo discusses The Exorcist case at length in the opening chapter of his book American Exorcism. Cuneo points out that the case was sensationalized. Some of the story’s most basic details were changed. For example, the possessed child was a boy who lived in Mount Rainier, not a girl living in an upscale Georgetown neighborhood.

The Georgetown setting was due to the author’s personal encounter with the story while attending Georgetown University. Blatty’s time at Georgetown clearly made a lifelong impact: “Those years at Georgetown were probably the best years of my life,” Blatty said in a 2015 interview. “Until then, I’d never had a home.”[2] 

Projectile pea soup vomit and spinning heads were just literary embellishments. Once you hear the true story, however, you will wonder why any embellishment was needed in the first place.

Note: Unfortunately, the ridiculous quantities of green, projectile vomit were not merely embellishments. Check out the chapter in True Catholic Exorcisms detailing the exorcism of Emma Schmidt.

The Impact of The Exorcist

The Exorcist case is important not only because of the extreme supernatural phenomenon on display. It’s important for the impact it had on the American psyche. It is the single most familiar exorcism to the wider American public, whether or not people realize it was based on a true story.[3]

The Exorcist left an indelible impression on the world’s imagination more so than any other case of possession ever has. This is because it was thrust upon the world after several decades of mounting disbelief in the existence of Satan. 

Although The Exeter Report showed that fear of Satan was already on the rise in England, exorcisms in America had declined precipitously. The United States had fallen into a deep sleep after its victory over evil during World War II. Even the Pentecostals had tried to dampen their more charismatic deliverances.[4]

The launch of The Exorcist in movie theaters all over America released a flood of repressed fears. It had been simple enough for the Devil to recede into the background of a world faced with nuclear annihilation and extinction. Then came the The Exorcist, and an ancient history of satanic awareness surged to the foreground. Many people found themselves unable to cope with the sudden jolt of religious revival, or at least the reminder of supernatural realities.

This resurgence in satanic awareness resulted in thousands of people suddenly fearing that they or a loved one was possessed. Father Tom Bermingham, one of the film’s minor actors and a researcher for Blatty’s book, suddenly found himself swarmed by hundreds of requests from individuals seeking an exorcism.[5] Exorcism and possession suddenly became mainstream, and the devil who had benefitted from being ignored and forgotten, now was suddenly benefitting from being a celebrity.


Not Mount Rainier

For one thirteen-year-old boy,[6] Satan had been a reality, long before the sale of the movie rights.

First off, let’s get the location right.

Roland Doe, the pseudonym used for the possessed boy, is commonly described as being a resident of Mount Rainier, Maryland. At the time of the first exorcisms in 1949, Mount Rainier was a small, working-class community of nearly 8,000 residents quietly tucked away in Victorian homes and bungalows on the outskirts of Washington, D.C.

Ever since the early 1980s and the release of (the first) Exorcist movie, local teens have been flocking to a then-vacant lot at the corner of Bunker Hill Road and 33rd Street in the residential heart of Mount Rainier.[7] An urban legend, spawned by local newspapers, holds that this was the former site of the house of Roland Doe.[8] Prince George’s County teens have long delighted in roaming the lot at all hours of the night, drinking beer, conducting initiations, erecting wooden crosses on the property, and yelling and screaming until local police are forced to come and chase them away.

Along with several other sources, Dean Landolt, a lifelong Mount Rainier resident of over seventy years, informed researchers that, “I was very good friends with Father Hughes, the priest involved in that case, as was my brother Herbert. Father Hughes told me two things: one was that the boy lived in Cottage City, and the other is that he went on to graduate from Gonzaga High and turned out fine.”[9]

It’s easy to understand the confusion. Cottage City is an even smaller, semi-isolated community just a short distance from Mount Rainier. Cottage City is nestled between the towns of Colmar Manor and Brentwood.

DO NOT use Ouija Boards. Terrible idea.


Don’t Play With Ouija Boards 

Hollywood’s decision to sensationalize the story does not mean the source exorcism of Roland Doe was without bizarre phenomena.

In a 1979 article for Fate magazine, Steve Erdmann includes the following description of events taken from a diary maintained by one of the priest-exorcists, Father Bishop: [10] [11]

January 15, 1949—A dripping noise was heard in his grandmother’s bedroom by the boy and his grandmother. A picture of Christ on the wall shook and scratching noises were heard under the floor boards. From that night on scratching was heard every night from 7 p.m. until midnight. This continued for ten consecutive days. After three days of silence, the boy heard nighttime “squeaking shoes” on his bed that continued for six consecutive nights.

And in another description: [12] 

For some time prior to the exorcism [...] the unidentified boy had been tormented by a battery of bizarre phenomena: There were scratchings and rappings on his bedroom walls, pieces of fruit and other objects were sent flying in his presence, and his bed mysteriously gyrated across the floor while he tried to sleep.

 Why were these things happening to the pseudonymously named Roland Doe? Was it just random? No, it appears the child’s aunt introduced him to the demonic.

Roland Doe was born into a German Lutheran family and was his parent’s only child. Since there were no other children in the family, Roland looked to his parents and other adults in his household for playmates. The boy spent much of his time with his Aunt Tillie.[13] Tillie was reportedly a “spiritualist”, which seems to indicate that she dabbled in witchcraft and other occult interests. She introduced Roland to the Ouija board.[14] This is when the trouble began.

A very detailed diary was kept by one of the priests that would later exorcise Roland. Under the heading January 26, 1949, the diary records the following concerning Aunt Tillie:[15] 

“Aunt Tillie,” who had a deep interest in spiritualism and had introduced Roland to the Ouija Board, died of multiple sclerosis at the age of 54. Mrs. Doe suspected there may have been some connection between her death and the seemingly strange events that continued to take place. At one point during the manifestations Mrs. Doe asked, “If you are Tillie, knock three times.” Waves of air began striking the grandmother, Mrs. Doe, and Roland and three knocks were heard on the floor. Mrs. Doe again queried, “If you are Tillie, tell me positively by knocking four times.” Four knocks were heard, followed by claw scratchings on Roland’s mattress.

Mrs. Doe also recounted using blessed candles when a comb flew across the room and extinguished them.[16] Other observations include fruit flying across the room, a kitchen table turning over, milk and food moving off a table, a coat and hanger flying across the room, a Bible landing at Roland’s feet, and a rocker spinning around while Roland was sitting in it. Roland was also removed from school after his desk moved around the classroom floor on its own.[17]

The desk event left an indelible impression on one eyewitness. Roland’s best childhood friend also recounted this event in detail in a 1998 interview with Mark Opsasnick:

One thing happened regarding all of this and I have a hard time clearing it in my mind. We were in eighth grade, it was the ’48-’49 school year and we were in a class together at Bladensburg Junior High. He was sitting in a chair and it was one of those deals with one arm attached and it looked like he was shaking the desk—the desk was shaking and vibrating extremely fast and I remember the teacher yelling at him to stop it and I remember he kind of yelled “I’m not doing it” and they took him out of class and that was the last I ever saw of him in school. The desk certainly did not move around the room like that book [Possessed] said, it was just shaking. I don’t know if he was doing it or what was doing it because I just can’t clear it in my mind.

The diary also describes Mrs. Doe taking a bottle of holy water and sprinkling its contents throughout the house. When she returned the bottle to its shelf, it flew across the room on its own but did not break.[18]

Another night, while holding a lit blessed candle at Roland’s bedside, Mrs. Doe experienced the whole bed rocking back and forth.

The Tools of the Catholic Exorcist: Holy Water, Blessed Salt, and the Rosary

The Need for a Priest 

According to American Exorcism by Michael Cuneo, the boy’s family initially requested the help of a Protestant minister, Luther Miles Schulze, but this only worsened the situation.

Pastor Schulze had long been interested in parapsychology, and arranged for the boy to spend the night of February 17, 1949 in his home for observation.[19] Schulze witnessed several disturbing phenomenon during this and subsequent encounters, including household objects and furniture moving by themselves.

Bill Brinkley interviewed Pastor Schulz for an article for The Washington Post entitled “Pastor Tells Eerie Tale of ‘Haunted’ Boy”.[20] Schulz describes the as boy sleeping nearby in a twin bed. In the dark, the minister reported hearing vibrating sounds from the bed and scratching sounds on the wall. Schulz also observed the boy sitting in a heavy armchair, which tilted on its own and tipped over. While the boy was laying on them, a pallet of blankets also inexplicably moved around the room.[21]

Schulze soon advised the boy’s parents to “see a Catholic priest.”[22] The family then sought help from the local Jesuit community. Despite their theological disagreements with the Catholic Church, Protestants generally acknowledge that priests are needed for the most difficult possessions.

Any ordained priest, with the blessing and permission of the local bishop, can perform an exorcism. Exorcisms, for that matter, are not all that rare. Elements of exorcisms are (or were once) incorporated into many Catholic liturgies, including the Mass and the Rite of Baptism, for example.

Father Gabriele Amorth, the foremost Catholic exorcist priest (now deceased) 

Nevertheless, the Church provides training for priests who are asked to specialize in exorcisms. This process is described by Father Gabriele Amorth, the designated exorcist for the Diocese of Rome, in his book, An Exorcist Tells His Story. Father Amorth describes the benefit of special training: 

We cannot improvise an exorcism. To assign such a task to any priest is like demanding that someone perform surgery after reading a textbook on the subject. Many, too many, things are not written in a text but are learned only through experience.[23] 

Father Amorth also laments the decline of “the school” for training exorcists:

I am convinced that allowing the ministry of exorcism to die is an unforgiveable deficiency to be laid squarely at the door of bishops… Today the exorcist is seen as a rarity, almost impossible to find… The Catholic hierarchy must say a forceful mea culpa. As a result of this negligence, we now have lost what once was the school; in the past, a practicing exorcist would instruct a novice.[24]

The First Exorcist: Father Edward Hughes

Father Edward Albert Hughes (1918-1980) was a Catholic priest who served as an assistant pastor from June 16, 1948 to June 18, 1960 at St. James Church in Mt. Rainier, Maryland. Father Hughes performed the first round of exorcisms on Roland Doe.

Just as Mrs. Doe had before him, Father Hughes is described as experiencing supernatural events concerning blessed objects:[25]

Hughes reported giving a bottle of holy water and candles to Roland’s parents to give to Roland before he went to sleep. The parents said the telephone table on which the holy water sat smashed into hundreds of pieces while the candle flamed up, torching the ceiling.

Shortly thereafter, it is recorded that Father Hughes received permission to exorcise the boy and the ritual was undertaken first and unsuccessfully at Georgetown University Hospital.

As discussed before, it is imperative that the local Bishop grant permission and authority to the presiding priest. It is not certain whether Father Hughes received such permission. This may be the reason Father Hughes was ultimately unsuccessful in exorcising Roland Doe. Father Hughes also only had a short time with the boy, and may have only attempted an abbreviated or informal exorcism.

The next attempt at exorcism would occur when the Doe family left Maryland for Missouri.

The Exorcisms 

The priests who initially handled the case were not trained exorcists, so they took various precautions. They ensured that the child underwent a battery of medical and psychiatric evaluations and was placed under 24-hour observation.

Dr. J. B. Rhine, director of the Parapsychology Laboratory at Duke University, reportedly described the phenomena associated with the possession, the “most impressive manifestation he has heard of in the poltergeist field.”[26]

Despite the best help of medical professionals, the situation continued to deteriorate: 

When a natural cure wasn’t found for his affliction, [...] and the bizarre symptoms threatened to rage completely out of control, it was decided to pursue a more drastic course of action. A Jesuit priest in his fifties was assigned to the case, and over the next several weeks [...] he performed more than twenty exorcisms on the boy. In all but the last of these, [according to an article in the Post] the boy broke into a violent tantrum of screaming, cursing and voicing of Latin phrases—a language he had never studied—whenever the priest reached those climactic points of the 27-page [exorcism] ritual in which commanded the demon to depart. It was the last of the exorcisms, after two nerve-jangling months, that finally did the trick. Following its completion, the strange symptoms disappeared entirely, and the boy was restored to full health.[27]

One of the attending priests kept a meticulous diary during the boy’s exorcism. This diary was obtained by Blatty while he was researching The Exorcist and served as a major inspiration for the novel. The diary details many of the supernatural phenomena that occurred during the exorcisms.

Many of the phenomena associated with demonic possessions can be attributed to mental illness, even some of the amazing displays of seemingly superhuman strength.

The following, however, cannot be attributed to merely natural causes.

The exorcist’s diary described mysterious brandings and inflammations that spontaneously materialized on the thirteen-year-old boy’s skin at various points during the ordeal. The brandings were not just random shapes. The brandings sometimes formed entire words, such as the word “SPITE”. There were times when images, even portraits, formed on the boy’s skin, including a hideous satanic visage.

The diary also described furniture shaking and crashing in the boy’s presence. There was also one particularly memorable incident in which a hospital nightstand flung itself from floor to ceiling.[28]

Perhaps some might dismiss such witness testimony out of hand, since it is coming from religious men. Men of faith are prone to delusions, right? Ignore the fact that Jesuit priests are among the most educated people in the world, and have been for the last five centuries.

However, these incidents were not just witnessed by the exorcist priests. Cuneo notes that these incidents were also witnessed by a physics professor from Washington University. The professor later remarked that there is much we have yet to discover concerning the nature of electromagnetism.[29] Truly.

Figure 8: The Exorcist movie still, "... an old priest and a young priest", as potrayed by Max Von Sydow and Jason Miller, respectively


The Second Round of Exorcisms: An Old Priest & a Young Priest 

Father Raymond J. Bishop, S.J. was a Jesuit priest who assigned to teach at St. Louis University. In case you are wondering, no – Father Bishop never became Bishop Bishop. He spent the last 20 years of his life teaching at another Jesuit institution, Creighton University in Nebraska.

Sometime in March 1949, Father Bishop was approached by one of his female students. She asked for the priest’s help with her thirteen-year-old cousin, Roland Doe (at this point, sometimes also referred to by a second pseudonym, Robbie Manheim). After contacting his close friend, Father William Sporing Bowdern, the two priests decided to perform the boy’s exorcism together.[30] [31]

Father Bowdern was the pastor of St. Francis Xavier Church, the church located on the grounds of St. Louis University. In addition to the permission of the local bishop, the assistance of the priest with authority over the local geographical area would be crucial to the success of the exorcism.

The age difference between the two Jesuit priests, Father Bishop and Father Bowdern, was not as well defined as The Exorcist movie portrayed it. Bowdern was 52 and Bishop, his assistant, was 43.

According to the diary, Father Bishop met the boy for the first time on March 9, 1949, and witnessed the scratches on the boy’s body and the unexplained movements of his mattress.

Three days later, on March 11,[32] Father Bowdern arrived on the scene. After Roland fell asleep around 11pm, Bowdern and Bishop began praying a Novena for the intercession of St. Francis Xavier. Bowdern also blessed the boy with a first class relic of St. Francis Xavier,[33] and fixed a relic-encrusted crucifix under the boy’s pillow. Shortly thereafter, both priests departed and the boy’s relatives left his room.

Father William Bowdern

After only a short time had passed, a loud noise was heard in Roland’s room and the five relatives present rushed back to the boy’s bedroom. They discovered that a large book case had moved, a bench had been turned over, and the crucifix had been moved to the edge of the bed. The shaking of Roland’s mattress had also resumed and only came to a halt after family members yelled, “Aunt Tillie, stop!”

The exorcism began on March 16 after Father Bowdern received the permission of the local bishop, Archbishop Joseph E. Ritter, to begin the formal rite of exorcism.

That night Father Bowdern was again accompanied by Father Bishop, as well as a Jesuit scholastic,[34] Walter Halloran. A series of exorcisms would occur over the next months and into April. During this time, the ritual was performed at various locations including the boy’s aunt’s house in Normandy, Missouri,[35] the nearby rectory (likely of St. Francis Xavier parish), and the Alexian Brothers Hospital in the southern section of St. Louis.[36]

Father Walter Halloran, then just a Jesuit Scholastic and not yet a priest

He Is Gone

Finally, on April 18, 1949, the nightmare came to an end.[37] The precise number of exorcisms performed is not known for certain, but the number likely exceeded twenty, as is typical of the exorcisms described in this book.

Late in the night, Father Bowdern succeeded in forcing Roland to wear a chain of holy medals and to hold a crucifix in his hands. Roland’s demeanor visibly softened, and he calmly asked questions about the meanings of certain Latin prayers.

Bowdern continued the ritual and demanded to know the name of the demon that was possessing Roland and when he would leave the boy. Roland erupted into a tantrum, but nevertheless admitted that he was one of the fallen angels.

Bowdern persisted with the ritual until 11:00 p.m., at which point Roland interrupted the priest. There was a new voice coming from the boy. The voice announced himself as St. Michael. St. Michael roared through Roland the following command:

Satan! Satan! I am St. Michael! I command you, Satan, and the other evil spirits to leave this body, in the name of Dominus, immediately! Now! Now! Now!

Roland’s body shook with one last spasm before falling quiet. “He is gone,” Roland announced.

Roland would later tell Father Bowdern that he had experienced a vision of St. Michael holding a flaming sword. Twelve days later Roland and his family left Missouri and returned to Maryland.

[Remember that prayer to St. Michael! Pray it with your Wheaties in the morning]

By all accounts, Roland Doe, or Ronald Edwin Hunkeler, his real name, lived the rest of his life in peace, in the most ordinary of ways. Doe/Hunkeler graduated from Gonzaga High School in 1954 and, it seems, played a lot of canasta with friends and family.

Family friends had little else of note to say about the boy or his family, except one notable change occurred following the boy’s successful exorcism by Fathers Bowdern and Bishop.

They converted to Catholicism.[38]

Happily Ever After: Roland Doe's Yearbook Picture

Ronald Edwin Hunkeler, the real Roland Doe, yearbook page,
graduating senior class 1954, Gonzaga High School

Footnotes: The True Story Behind The Exorcist Movie: The Exorcism of Roland Doe 

[1] Ronald Edwin Hunkeler was given the pseudonym, Roland Doe, by the original Washington, DC newspaper accounts of the possession in 1949. In December 2021, The Skeptical Inquirer (JD Sword. "Demoniac: Who Is Roland Doe, the Boy Who Inspired The Exorcist?" Skeptical Inquirer, November/December 2021. Vol. 45, no. 6) and The Guardian (Maya Yang, 2021-12-20, "Boy whose case inspired The Exorcist is named by US magazine," The Guardian) reported the purported true identity of Roland Doe/Robbie Mannheim as Ronald Edwin Hunkeler (June 1, 1935 - May 10, 2020).

[2] “William Peter Blatty, Author of ‘The Exorcist’, Dies at 89,” The Washington Post, January 13, 2017.

[3] Jamie H. Parsons, The Manifest Darkness: Exorcism and Possession in the Christian Tradition, 2012, 64-68.

[4] W. Scott Poole, Satan in America, 112.

[5] Michael Cuneo, American Exorcism: Expelling Demons in the Land of Plenty, 12.

[6] Roland Doe is often described as being fourteen; however, his birthdate has been confirmed as June 1, 1935 making him thirteen at the time of the first exorcism. Also, it is interesting that both Roland Doe and Emma Schmidt first suffered possession at approximately the same age.

[7] Though 3210 Bunker Hill Road is commonly listed as the home of the Doe family, research conducted by Mark Opsasnick of Strange Magazine concluded that the family’s actual address was 3807 40th Avenue, Cottage City, Maryland. Opsasnick found that the yearbook entries for the graduating seniors of Gonzaga High School listed their home addresses. Based on the convergence of other clues including the boy’s birthdate, Opsasnick believes he found the correct entry for Roland Doe. A copy of the yearbook page is provided at the end of this chapter.

[8] Mark Opsasnick, “The Haunted Boy of Cottage City: The Cold Hard Facts Behind the Story That Inspired ‘The Exorcist’”, Strange Magazine, Issue 20 (1999).

[9] Opsasnick, ibid.

[10] Steve Erdmann, “The Truth Behind The Exorcist,” Fate Magazine, January 1975; “Aunt Tillie” referred to elsewhere as “Aunt Harriet”.

[11] The diary was entitled “Case Study by Jesuit Priests.” Erdmann describes the origin and chain of title for this diary:  during the fall of 1949 an unnamed Georgetown University student, whose father was a psychiatrist at St. Elizabeth’s Hospital in Washington, D.C. and may have been involved in the case, told Georgetown faculty member Father Eugene B. Gallagher, S.J., of the existence of the mysterious diary. Father Gallagher obtained from the psychiatrist a 16-page diary-like document written as a guide for future exorcisms. Mark Opsasnick states in his piece for Strange Magazine, referenced many times herein, that the diary was kept and written by Father Bishop.

[12] Michael Cuneo, American Exorcism: Expelling Demons in the Land of Plenty (New York: Doubleday, 2001), 5.

[13] Steve Erdmann, “The Truth Behind The Exorcist,” Fate Magazine, January 1975; “Aunt Tillie” referred to elsewhere as “Aunt Harriet”.

[14] Thomas B. Allen, Possessed: The True Story of an Exorcism, Book Country, 11 November 2013.

[15] Erdmann, ibid.

[16] Erdmann, ibid.

[17] Erdmann, ibid.

[18] Erdmann, ibid.

[19] Allen, ibid.

[20] The Washington Post, August 10, 1949.

[21] The Evening Star, another Washington, D.C. paper, wrote a story of its own on the incident, which was published on the same date, August 10, 1949. This article originally named the boy’s parents “Mr. and Mrs. John Doe” and the boy, “Roland”.

[22] Allen, ibid.

[23] Gabriele Amorth, An Exorcist Tell His Story, Ignatius Press, 1999, 68.

[24] Amorth, 55.

[25] Allen, ibid.

[26] “Minister Tells Parapsychologists Noisy ‘Ghost’ Plagued Family,” The Evening Star, August 10, 1949.

[27] Cuneo, 6.

[28] Cuneo, 7.

[29] Ibid.

[30] Troy Taylor, The Devil Came to St. Louis: The True Story of the 1949 Exorcism, Whitechapel Productions Press: 2006.

[31] Steven A. LaChance, Confrontation with Evil: An In-Depth Review of the 1949 Possession that Inspired The Exorcist, Llewellyn Worldwide: 2017.

[32] Opsasnick, ibid.

[33] This particular relic was a piece of bone from the forearm of St. Francis Xavier.

[34] A scholastic is the stage in a Jesuit’s career after novice, i.e. after they have graduated from the novitiate. Scholastics are not yet ordained priests. A Jesuit seminarian typically attends university as a scholastic, and this occurs in the third through fifth or sixth year of being a Jesuit. 

[35] This is a different aunt from Roland Doe’s Aunt Harriet or “Tillie”.

[36] Erdmann describes that on one occasion Roland got his hand on a bedspring, broke it off, and jabbed it into a priest’s arm. It is uncertain whether

[37] Opsasnick, ibid.

[38] Opsasnick uncovered this detail in his interviews of the Does’ neighbors in Cottage City. Alvin Kagey, a childhood friend of Roland and now a dentist in Southern Virginia, provided this detail.

Check out our sponsors

Check out our sponsors

Post a Comment